Anthocyanins in nutrition
biochemistry and health benefits
Regarding nutrition, the new trend of consumption includes vegetables and fruits in the diet and concludes that new preference is to natural foods. Red grape berries constitute a great candidate to this target because of their high phenolic content, including anthocyanins which play a major role in their nutraceutical properties. Anthocyanins are responsible for many of the red-orange to blue-violet colors present in plant tissues. These compounds are excellent antioxidants because they are easily oxidized under stress circumstances and thus contribute to the fruits' and vegetables' protective effect regarding degenerative and chronic diseases. Anthocyanins are synthesized via the phenylpropanoid pathway, and their biosynthesis is regulated not only genetically but also physiologically. They are naturally produced by plants in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. There are five common anthocyanins in grapevine: cyanidin, peonidin, delphinidin, petunidin, and malvidin. Their accumulation varies with the cultivar; the environmental conditions, especially light intensity and temperature; plant growth regulators; and vineyard management practices. Climate change may affect the metabolic composition of grapevine such as anthocyanins content of grape berry and so the final wine quality. The evidence linking consumption of anthocyanins from the diet to beneficial human health outcomes has been presented over multiple experimental platforms and disease targets. When superior animals consume these functional foods or wine, the anthocyanins are absorbed in the digestive tract. It has been shown that the possible transporter of anthocyanins is associated to a bilitranslocase in the gastric epithelium. Due to their many benefits to human health, anthocyanins should be present in all human diets.
De Rosas, M. I. , Deis, L. , Martínez, L. , Durán, M. , Malovini, E. (2019)., Anthocyanins in nutrition: biochemistry and health benefits, in H. L. . Mesones arroyo (ed.), Psychiatry and neuroscience update, Dordrecht, Springer, pp. 143-152.
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