Race according to biological science
Modern biologists and anthropologists invented ideas of scientific race as a universal system of human typing that began with geography and description but by the nineteenth century relied on essences and assessment. When racial categories were seen to be arbitrary and culture viewed as the result of history, ideas of populations were substituted for race. But populations are more numerous than races and can only work as races if social races are assumed to be real and used to identify populations. Also, there are more differences within populations of physical racial traits, than between populations. By the twenty-first century, the idea of race was abandoned in biological science, although in the "race debates" some philosophers, try to retain it.
Zack, N. (2018). Race according to biological science, in Philosophy of race, Dordrecht, Springer, pp. 47-69.
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