Implication of oxidative stress, aging, and inflammatory processes in neurodegenerative diseases
growth factors as therapeutic approach
The incidence of neurodegenerative diseases is increasing progressively, and unfortunately the molecular mechanisms that lead to them are still unknown. Several studies are advancing in the comprehension of the processes involved in the establishment of the neurodegeneration. In this sense, the current approaches are focused on genes associated with the neurodegenerative diseases, reactional gliosis or microglial activation, pro-inflammatory cytokine production, IL-6 increase as a transcription factor, growth factor decrease, mitochondrial dysfunction, antioxidant defense system, cellular metabolism, protein degradation/aggregation, and oxidative stress triggering redox-dependent signals, among others. Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases show an increased diagnosis worldwide and are examples of deleterious effects associated with aging.The present chapter is focused on the implication of the oxidative stress, aging, and inflammation processes on neurodegenerative alterations that lead to neuronal dysfunctions, tissue disturbances, and motor-cognitive disorders. In regard to this, the neurotrophic factors of clinical interest prevent the degeneration and enhance recovery of remaining neurons. Among them, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), which is strongly induced by microglial cells after different insults such as ischemia, cortical injury, and inflammatory processes, is emerging as a powerful neuroprotective molecule. For this reason, we will close this chapter with the implications of IGF-1 on neurodegenerative diseases as a key neuroprotective and neuromodulator molecule.
Falomir-Lockhart, E. , Cruz Dolcetti, F. J. , Arnal, N. (2019)., Implication of oxidative stress, aging, and inflammatory processes in neurodegenerative diseases: growth factors as therapeutic approach, in H. L. . Mesones arroyo (ed.), Psychiatry and neuroscience update, Dordrecht, Springer, pp. 165-176.
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