The emergence of reason, intelligence, and language in humans and animals
Emergence as an overarching paradigm requires an introductory analysis about the importance and types of causality. As L'Abate (2005) commented, there are at least three different types of causality or important principles necessary for theory construction: equifinality, when many courses lead to one single outcome, equipotentiality, one single cause can lead to many different outcomes, and multicausality, when many causes lead to many different outcomes.
Hillix, W. A. (2012)., The emergence of reason, intelligence, and language in humans and animals, in L. L'abate (ed.), Paradigms in theory construction, Dordrecht, Springer, pp. 397-420.
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